Fibriani A, Wisaksana R, Alisjahbana B, Indrati A, Schutten M, van Crevel R, van der Ven A,Boucher CA
Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden.
The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia.
A cross sectional study was conducted among a cohort of HIV infected patients in 2008. Demographic and disease related variables were compared between HBV negative and positive patients. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for HBV co-infection. HBV and HIV genotyping was performed in co-infected patients.
Of 636 HIV-infected patients, the rate of HBV co-infection was 7%. The proportion of males was higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients than in HIV mono-infected patients (93% vs. 72%, P=0.001). A history of injecting drug use (IDU), but not tattooing, was associated with HBV co-infection [P=0.035 OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.06-5.47)]. In the HIV and HBV treatment naive patients, CD4 cells counts <50cells/mm(3), HIV-RNA plasma ≥10,000copies/ml and AST level above normal were more often found in patients with high HBV-DNA levels (≥20,000IU/ml) as compared to those with low HBV DNA (<20.000IU/ml) (P<0.05). As in the general population, B3 was the dominant subtype in HBV co-infected patients.
The prevalence of active HBV infection and the genotype distribution among HIV infected individuals is similar to the overall population in Java. However, an increased prevalence was observed in men with a history of IDU, underlining the need for routine HBV screening and monitoring.